The Russian Federation and The Islamic Republic of Iran,
Renewing their commitment to the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations,
Recalling General Assembly resolution 2625 (XXV) of 24 October 1970 containing the Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations,
Reaffirming General Assembly resolution 3281 (XXIX) of 12 December 1974 containing the Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States, pursuant to which no State may use or encourage the use of economic, political or any other type of measures to coerce another State in order to obtain from it the subordination of the exercise of its sovereign rights,
Considering that "unilateral coercive measures" refers to coercive measures – other than those enacted by the Security Council acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations – taken by a State, group or association of States, in violation of the principles of sovereign equality of States and non-interference in internal affairs of States, including the pressure in any form, whether political, judicial, financial or economic, in order to compel a change in policy of another State by causing costs and damage to that State and those who support its political course,
Recognizing that unilateral coercive measures in certain cases run counter to Security Council resolutions adopted under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations and violate Security Council prerogatives under the Charter of the United Nations,
Bearing in mind the importance of free trade for the development of States and the well-being of their peoples,
Confirming that unilateral coercive measures create obstacles to the full enjoyment of human rights and impede the full realization of the rights set forth in major international human rights instruments,
Recalling the Declaration of the Russian Federation and the Islamic Republic of Iran on the Promotion of International Law signed on 16 June 2020 at Moscow,
Declare the following guidelines on the ways and means to counter, mitigate and redress the adverse impacts of unilateral coercive measures:
- Recourse of any State to unilateral coercive measures is unlawful, contrary to the Charter of the United Nations and international law and will entail international responsibility.
- Unilateral coercive measures, including those of extraterritorial nature, implemented by the third State, group or association of States in violation of the Charter of the United Nations and international law should not be recognized and implemented.
- States are strongly urged to refrain from adopting, promulgating and applying the unilateral coercive measures that impede the full achievement of economic and social development, particularly in developing countries.
- Any foreign judgment arising from the application of national laws, orders and regulations imposing unilateral coercive measures on other States should not be recognized or enforced by national courts.
- State and private properties and assets, including bank accounts, bonds, real estate as well as consular and diplomatic premises and facilities, shall be immune from and not subject to freezing, forfeiture or any other form of confiscation or restriction arising from the implementation of unilateral coercive measures by any authorities. The jurisdictional immunities of States and the immunity of their properties shall at all time be observed and protected against the implementation of unilateral coercive measures.
- In the event of economic or financial loss incurred as a result of the adoption of unilateral coercive measures, the State that has inflicted such loss on an affected State, individuals and legal entities by its actions or extraterritorial application of its national laws, shall be primarily held liable for compensation and damages.
- A road map should be drawn up by States to reduce the dependency of international trade on national currencies that are prone to being used to implement unilateral coercive measures or to sustain a particular State's monetary hegemony over the global economy.
- Efforts shall be made to create regional or other forms of inter-State financial institutions to strengthen their bilateral and multilateral financial relationships and eliminate the inequitable practices and processes that presently characterize certain global financial and development institutions.
- No one shall be deprived of liberty or freedom of movement or be subject to any other form of restriction grounded in the unilateral coercive acts, laws or policy. Executive and judicial authorities shall conduct a rigorous review of all documents and evidence presented to them in order to avoid giving unwarranted effect to unilateral coercive measures.
- The evasion or circumvention of unilateral coercive measures by individuals shall not be considered as a ground for extradition.
- Under no circumstances trade in humanitarian goods and commodities, such as foodstuffs and agricultural commodities, medicines and medical devices, as well as spare parts, equipment and associated services necessary for the safety of civil aviation shall be subject to any form of direct or indirect coercive economic measure. Accordingly, any impediment to such trade, including impediments to transportation, financial transactions and the transfer of currencies or credit documents, shall be removed.
- Tangible or intangible cultural properties, cultural, academic and sports activities, revenues arising from art and sport, the income of workers abroad, resources pertaining to the functioning of diplomatic missions and consular posts, contributions to international organizations, funds pertaining to students and academic activities, and other activities of similar character shall at no time be affected or interrupted even temporarily by any unilateral coercive measure.
- Any unilateral coercive measure that adversely affects population of a state and narrows the humanitarian space by hindering the humanitarian needs of that population or impeding the full enjoyment of that population's human rights, including its essential economic, social and cultural rights as enshrined in international human rights instruments, shall be considered a grave violation of international human rights law.
- Humanitarian aid in kind or in cash in cases of natural and other disasters shall not be subject to unilateral coercive measures.
- Unilateral coercive measures in the sphere of culture, restrictions against specific cultural and historical figures based on their nationality, citizenship or political convictions and affiliations, as well as the practice of "cancelling the culture" of specific nations or peoples shall be considered unacceptable.
- States are encouraged to adopt laws and regulations to enforce the measures stipulated in these guidelines.
Signed at Moscow on 05.12.2023.
For the Russian Federation
Minister of Foreign Affairs
For the Islamic Republic of Iran
Minister of Foreign Affairs