[dehai-news] (UNDP) Eritrea records sucess in controlling HIV/AIDS epidemic (December 20, 2008)

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From: Biniam Haile \(SWE\) (eritrea.lave@comhem.se)
Date: Fri Mar 27 2009 - 13:52:00 EST

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
December 20, 2008: Eritrea records sucess in controlling HIV/AIDS

The Millennium Development Goals in Eritrea:

In September 2000, the Millennium Summit, comprising all 189-member
countries of the United Nations, including Eritrea, adopted the UN
Millennium Declaration. The objective of the Declaration was to improve
the livelihoods of humanity in the Twenty-First century. The Millennium
Declaration incorporated the earlier International Development Goals
(IDGs) and other objectives for socio-economic development to constitute
the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
Eritrea signed its first Millennium Development Goals Report (MDGR) on
23 November 2006 and is already distributed. The Ministry of National
Development (MND) as owner of the process guided and managed the
preparation of the report, and the UN Country Team (UNCT) provided the
Government the necessary support. Despite Eritrea's independence was in
1991 and lack of data on the major indicators, the available data has
been, with qualifications made whenever appropriate, sufficient for
assessing Eritrea's progress towards the achievement of the MDGs. The
MDGR; therefore, succeeded in (a) providing a road map leading to the
achievement of the targets by the target date of 2015; and (b)
indicating, in broad terms, the resources required for achieving the MDG
By the year 2015, all 191 United Nations Member States have pledged to
meet these 8 goals:
1-Halve the proportion of people living on less than a dollar a day
2-Reduce by half those who suffer from hunger through rapid and
sustainedeconomic growth and development.
Progress In Eritrea:
The proportion of the populations living below the national poverty line
was 53 percent during 1993-95. The comparable figure for 2001-03 was 66
percent. These figures take into account food and non-food aid. On the
face of it, the incidence of poverty has increased. But this increase
has to be seen in context; that is, in light of the adverse consequences
of the border war and the severe drought that hit Eritrea during 2002.

3-Ensure that, by 2015, boys and girls complete a full course of primary
Progress In Eritrea:

The net primary school enrollment ratio raised from 30 percent in
1993-95 to 44 percent in 2001-03, an increase of 47 percent. These
figures show that progress has been made in increasing primary school
enrollments but they also show that a lot remains to be done.
4-Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education,
preferably by 2005, and at all levels of education by 2015
Progress In Eritrea:
 During the 1993-95 periods, the ratios of girls to boys at the primary,
middle and secondary school levels were quite high: 80, 84 and 65
percent, respectively.
Data for the 2001-03 period show that the gender ratios have stagnated
or deteriorated. In particular, the ratio of girls to boys in secondary
school dropped from 65 percent in the earlier period to 57 percent in
2001-03. This could be partly due to the unsettling situation created
by the border war and its consequences.
5-Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal
mortality ratio.
Progress In Eritrea:
The under-five mortality rate fell from 136 deaths per 1,000 live births
in 1993-95 to 93 in 2001-03, a decline of 46 percent. The infant
mortality rate declined from 72 deaths per 1,000 live births to 48 over
the same period. These figures show that progress has been made in
reducing child mortality.
6- Reduce by three quarters the maternal mortality ratio
Progress In Eritrea:
Based on the 1995 DHS, maternal deaths per 100,000 live births were
estimated at 985 during 1993-95. Projecting the 1993-95 figure so as to
achieve the 2015 global target yields a rough maternal mortality ratio
of 581 during 2001-03. But health facility data for the period 2001-03
give a maternal mortality ratio of 230.
7- Halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015.
8- Halt and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major
diseases by 2015.
Progress In Eritrea
 Reliable data on HIV prevalence are not available for 1993-95. For the
2001-03 period the adult prevalence rate, based on an expanded
ante-natal clinic sentinel surveillance program, is estimated at 2.4
percent. This is low when compared to the prevalence rates in some of
the worst-affected countries in Africa.
With regard to tuberculosis, health facility-based data show that in
2003 the smear positive detection rate was 70 percent while the cure
rate was 85 percent.
9- Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country
policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources.
10- Halve by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to
safe drinking water.
11- Achieve by 2020 significant improvement in lives slum dwellers.
Progress In Eritrea:

 In recognition of the importance of environmental sustainability, the
Government established the Ministry of Land, Water and Environment
(MLWE) in 1997. The MLWE is being strengthened so that it can play the
lead role in integrating the principles of sustainable development into
country policies and programs.
Since independence, efforts have been underway to halt and begin to
reverse environmental degradation through afforestation programs, soil
and water conservation and management programs, protected area programs,
etc. According to the 2003 Human Development Report, land area covered
by forest was 13.9 percent in 1990.
Based on DHS data, the proportion of households without access to safe
drinking water declined from 83.6 percent in 1993-1995 to 32.5 percent
in 2001-03 (see Table 3.9). In the urban areas, apparently only 3
percent of households were without clean water in 2001-03 while 51.7
percent of rural households were without clean water.
DHS data show that the proportion of households without flush toilets or
ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrines declined from 87.2 percent in
1993-95 to 74.4 percent in 2001-03.
 GOAL Eight
Issue 1: Develop further an open trading and financial system that is
rule-based, predictable and non-discriminatory. This includes a
commitment to good governance, development and poverty reduction -
nationally and internationally.
Issue 2: Address the least developed countries' special needs. This
includes tariff and quota-free access for their exports; enhanced debt
relief for heavily indebted poor countries; cancellation of official
bilateral debt; and more generous official development assistance for
countries committed to poverty reduction.
Issue 3: Address the special needs of landlocked and small island
develop in states.
Issue 4: Deal comprehensively with developing countries' debt problems
through national and international measures to make debt sustainable in
the long term;
Issue 5: In cooperation with developing countries, develop decent and
productive work for the youth;
Issue 6: In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to
affordable essential drugs in developing countries.Issue 7: In
cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new
technologies-especially information and communications technologies.
Progress In Eritrea:
No quantitative targets were set in respect of the above-mentioned
issues. However, the issues highlight the crucial point that while the
responsibility for achieving the MDGs rests with the Government and
people of Eritrea, the country cannot go it alone. It needs a
significant level of support from its development partners. The costs
presented in Chapter 4 give an indication of the resources needed to
achieve the MDGs and provide a basis for discussions concerning the
required level of MDGs-related support from development partners.

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