(CS Monitor) Could military action help solve Europe's Mediterranean refugee crisis?

From: Biniam Tekle <biniamt_at_dehai.org_at_dehai.org>
Date: Thu, 30 Apr 2015 20:51:41 -0400


Could military action help solve Europe's Mediterranean refugee crisis? (+video)

Though striking the refugee-smugglers might briefly disrupt the flow
of migrants from Libya to Italy, it doesn't address what's causing the
crisis in the first place.

By Nick Squires, Correspondent April 28, 2015

Catania, Sicily — After the worst ever tragedy among refugees in the
Mediterranean, in which an estimated 750 perished, locked inside the
hold of a boat that capsized last week, European leaders vowed to
tackle head-on the smuggling gangs in Libya.

Now, as tens of thousands of refugees and asylum seekers attempt to
cross the Mediterranean in decrepit fishing boats and rubber dinghies,
the continent's leaders are mulling drastic action – military strikes
on the traffickers who organize the voyages.

But despite the integral role of the people-smugglers in facilitating
the risky, even deadly, trips across the Mediterranean, military
action against them and their boats and storehouses is not likely to
solve the humanitarian crisis, analysts say. Rather, it will only
increase the danger to refugees, either by exposing them directly to
the dangers of combat or by trapping them within the chaos of Libya's
civil war.

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“As long as legal and safe channels of access to the EU are not
established, these people will continue to brave the sea in search of
protection and a better life, and the bodies will continue to pile up
on Europe’s border,” says Karim Lahidji, the president of the
International Federation for Human Rights, a human rights group
representing 178 nongovernmental organizations from nearly 120

'Smash the gangs'

The smugglers are acting with impunity all along the coast of Libya,
which has descended into chaos since the toppling of its long-time
dictator, Muammar Qaddafi, in 2011. From Libya, the traffickers send
their human cargo across the Mediterranean, with Italy’s geographical
proximity to North Africa meaning it is the primary destination.

The civil war in Syria, unrest in Afghanistan and Palestine, conflict
in sub-Saharan Africa, and tyrannical regimes in countries such as
Eritrea are forcing millions of people to flee their countries, with
many prepared to risk everything, even their lives, in order to reach

Last year 170,000 migrants arrived on Italian shores from Libya and so
far this year around 25,000 have made the journey. But some 1,750 died
in the attempt in the past few weeks, including 750 alone in last
weekend's tragedy.

The EU’s foreign policy chief, Federica Mogherini, has been given the
task of drawing up concrete plans to "identify, capture and destroy"
boats used by the trafficking groups.

She will travel to New York this week to try to garner support from
the United Nations on such a course of action and European leaders
will reconvene next month to further discuss military measures.

British Prime Minister David Cameron said a priority should be to
“smash the gangs” operating in Libya. He promised to deploy to the
Mediterranean the Royal Navy’s flagship HMS Bulwark, which carries
helicopters and Royal Marine commandos, as well as two patrol vessels.

Other countries, including France, Germany, Ireland, and Sweden, also
committed ships and helicopters to a new, expanded search and rescue

Dangers of military action

But the tough talk about capturing and destroying boats has raised all
sorts of questions about the practicality – not to mention the
legality – of military action. EU leaders did not spell out exactly
what “smashing the gangs” would entail, but it could take the form of
covert raids by special forces launched from submarines and surface
ships, or strikes by drones operating from Sicily.

Critics say that drone strikes could accidentally kill innocent
people, including refugees. Smugglers typically gather them together
in abandoned farms, warehouses, and private homes along the Libyan
coast, prior to taking them to the nearest beach and putting them on
board boats.

It would also be difficult to distinguish between fishing boats about
to be used to transport migrants across the sea, and genuine fishing
boats owned by innocent fishermen.

Commando raids would also be highly problematic – the smugglers are
well-armed and would almost certainly shoot back if fired upon.

Libya – which is split between two rival governments, one in Tripoli
and the other in the eastern city of Tobruk – said any such attacks
would be regarded as an act of war. “Taking out boats without our
permission would be considered a declaration of war against Libya,”
said Abdel-Qader Huweily, a lawmaker with Libyan Dawn, the
administration which is based in Tripoli.

“Who can guarantee that the weapons won't also kill nearby people? You
can destroy all the boats, but the problem of migrants fleeing wars,
persecutions and misery will still exist,” says the Vatican's Cardinal
Antonio Maria Veglio, the head of the Pontifical Council on Migrants.
"Bombing the boats is useless. Desperate people will keep finding new
ways to flee... they will make more boats, or flee on land."

Dealing with the root cause

UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon signaled the depth of the divide in
the international community, in an interview published before today's
scheduled appearance with Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi and Ms.
Mogherini, the EU foreign policy chief, on board an Italian ship, the
San Giusto, as a gesture of "solidarity" with migrants. While the
Italians and the EU are calling for aggressive military measures
against the traffickers in Libya, the head of the UN said there could
be "no military solution" to the tragedies in the Mediterranean.

"What is crucial is to have a global approach that takes into account
the roots of the problem, the security and human rights of migrants
and refugees, such as having immigration channels that are legal and
regular," Ban said in an interview with Italy's La Stampa daily.

“The overwhelming focus on combating smuggling ignores the fact that
the vast majority of the people coming through this route are seeking
protection," says Peter Balleis, the international director of the
Jesuit Refugee Service, a Catholic charity which operates in nearly 50
countries. "It is the lack of protection and access to regular
migration channels which fuels smuggling.”

Flavio Di Giacomo, a spokesman for the International Organization for
Migration, says the EU proposals to capture and destroy smugglers’
boats would leave tens of thousands of migrants and refugees stranded
in Libya, where they are often physically abused by traffickers.

Italian authorities said last week that they believe that up to a
million asylum seekers may be in Libya, waiting to cross the

“If you destroy the boats so that migrants cannot leave, they are then
stuck in Libya, which is in crisis,” says Mr. Di Giacomo, as he
watched 220 mostly sub-Saharan migrants disembark in the port of
Catania in Sicily after being rescued by the Italian navy.

“Migrants know they could die while crossing the Sahara or in one of
the boats, but they are surprised at the level of violence they
experience in Libya. They tell us the situation in Libya is like
Received on Thu Apr 30 2015 - 20:52:21 EDT

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