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[Dehai-WN] IPS.org: Somalia: Tighter Security Ignores Root Causes of Somali Crises

From: Berhane Habtemariam <Berhane.Habtemariam_at_gmx.de_at_dehai.org>
Date: Mon, 16 Apr 2012 22:27:50 +0200

Somalia: Tighter Security Ignores Root Causes of Somali Crises

By Bari Bates, 16 April 2012


Brussels — As Western forces step up their military presence in Somalia,
locals and experts are worried that the country - struggling under multiple
crises from piracy, to drought - is doomed to churn in a cycle of violence
that fails to acknowledge root causes of the problems.

Making bold moves to curb piracy efforts on the Somali coast, the North
Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) and the European Union have decided to
extend counter-piracy missions until the end of 2014.

The EU operation, called Atalanta, has also been extended to include land
targets in order to work closely with the Transitional Federal Government
and other Somali entities, according to a statement from the Council of the
EU - a move that has been widely condemned by experts who believe these
attacks will threaten civilian life and undermine anti-piracy efforts.

"Fighting piracy and its root causes is a priority of our action in the Horn
of Africa. Despite pressure on defense budgets, EU member states demonstrate
their renewed commitment to this successful operation," EU High
Representative Catherine Ashton said in a statement issued Mar. 23.

The announcement came days after Rear Admiral Duncan L. Potts, operation
commander for Atalanta, addressed the Subcommittee on Security and Defense
and announced it was time for the EU to "tighten pressure on pirates and
reach out to Somalis."

Already, operation Atalanta and NATO's operation Ocean Shield, along with
U.S. maritime forces and other national actors, can tentatively boast a
decreased number of pirate attacks.

According to Potts, 2011 can be looked at as a "year of two halves" in terms
of EU efforts--during the first half of the year, 28 vessels were
commandeered, while the second half of the year saw only three vessels

NATO reports decreased pirate activity as well. In Jan. 2011, there were 29
attacks and six ships overtaken, while numbers for Jan. 2012 showed only
four attacks, none of which were successful.

Still, there has been widespread criticism over increased security in the
country, with many experts arguing that international naval forces simply
fuel a cycle of violence and fail to address the root causes of Somalia's

Others believe the use of violence to defeat piracy is misguided, since
illegal fishing and dumping in Somali waters have been exposed as the root
causes of piracy as a whole.

Desperate for food

Somalia remains one of the most difficult countries for humanitarian groups
to operate in, owing to decades of violence and, in more recent years, a
crippling drought that has left thousands dead and millions starving.

According to the World Food Programme, 2.4 million people are in need of
assistance in Somalia, roughly 32 percent of the population. Currently, the
WFP reaches up to 1.3 million people along the coast of Somalia, as well as
in Puntland, Somaliland, and Mogadishu.

The goals of Operation Atalanta, according to the EU Naval Force (EU
NAVFOR), include deterring and preventing acts of piracy, protecting
shipping off the Somali coast, as well as protecting WFP vessels carrying
food to displaced persons.

Thus far, EU NAVFOR reports the successful delivery of nearly 900,000 metric
tonnes of food to relief efforts in Somalia, with 145 WFP ships escorted to

The scale of violence has impacted other aid organisations as well, with aid
workers often caught in the midst of deadly attacks in their line of work.

Doctors Without Borders (Médecins Sans Frontières or MSF) recently condemned
the shelling of the emergency room and surgical ward of Mogadishu's Daynile
Hospital in late March. MSF has worked in the hospital since 2006 as part of
the organisation's 13 operations within the country.

The organisation's efforts in the Hodan district of the capital were cut in
half this January, after two aid workers, Philippe Havet and Karel Keiluhu,
were killed.

MSF continues to call for the release of two aid workers, Blanca Thiebaut
and Montserrat Serra, who were abducted from the Dadaab refugee camp in
Kenya in October last year, while providing assistance to Somali refugees.

Disrupting the 'business model' of piracy

Most experts are widely agreed on the fact that Somalia's future depends on
treating the "symptoms" of the failed state by eventually curtailing piracy,
promoting a stable national government and establishing a robust judicial

Potts acknowledged that those who commit acts of piracy are part of the
disenfranchised population, driven to the "cash-rich but asset-poor"
business of piracy. He described the pirates as "criminals of opportunity"
who don't discriminate based on whatever national flag a ship raises.

Indeed, the fact that the most sophisticated aerial surveillance systems
have been unable to take out the modestly equipped pirates is testament to
the latter's economic desperation.

Still, locals are losing tolerance for continued acts of piracy, according
to Potts. Efforts to dissuade citizens from falling into piracy include
involving clan elders in Somalia, who are poised to get the message across,
particularly to the youth.

Alexander Rondos, the EU Special Representative for the Horn of Africa,
described a "lost generation" of youth that pays an awful price for piracy.

Potts lamented the EU's limited ability to properly handle underage suspects
of piracy, given the lack of effective legal and rehabilitation systems
capable of "processing" these criminal minors.

Cautious Optimism?

When Rondos visited Somalia just hours before addressing the Subcommittee on
Mar. 20 he noted that the next several months are absolutely crucial to the
country's future.

He stressed the need for effective judicial systems and institutions that
are rooted in the grassroots and affect the needs of local communities.

Efforts cannot rely solely on the "EU and a collection of white people who
feel good about helping others," Rondos claimed, highlighting the need for
solutions that include local voices.

Still, Rondos mentioned signs of hope within Mogadishu - he described
movements of people returning to the city, investing in day-to-day life and
opening new businesses.

Though still a threat, the Somali-based terrorist group Al-Shabaab is
beginning to "melt away," according to Rondos, who added that he observed
"indications of a growing number of people affiliated with Al-Shabaab that
want to detach themselves" from the outfit, though the core of the group
remains active.

With cautious optimism, the importance of providing security for the Somali
people remains a priority, Rondos said.



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Received on Mon Apr 16 2012 - 16:28:00 EDT
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