[Dehai-WN] Brookings.edu: An Economic Perspective on the Refugee Crisis in Africa's Horn

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From: Berhane Habtemariam (Berhane.Habtemariam@gmx.de)
Date: Tue Sep 13 2011 - 12:52:58 EDT

An Economic Perspective on the Refugee Crisis in Africa's Horn

 <http://www.brookings.edu/experts/kamaua.aspx> Anne W. Kamau, Africa
Research Fellow, <http://www.brookings.edu/global.aspx> Global Economy and
Development, <http://www.brookings.edu/projects/africa-growth.aspx> Africa
Growth Initiative

The Brookings Institution

SEPTEMBER 13, 2011 -

Political repression, conflicts, drought and economic instability have
resulted in twin humanitarian crises in the horn of Africa: widespread
famine and an influx of refugees and internally displaced persons. Much
attention has been directed at the famine situation which has received
overwhelming international response. However, there has been much less
effort to address the refugee and internally displaced persons crisis. As of
last month, it is estimated that there are 800,000 refugees and
approximately 1.46 million internally displaced persons across Kenya,
Ethiopia, Somalia and Djibouti. Already the refugee camps that serve as
"safe havens" are over stretched due to congestion and lack of sufficient
services, such as food, water and security.


The influx of refugees is imposing substantial environmental, social and
economic costs to the host nations. In Ethiopia, the residents of Dollo Ado-
the Gerimero community, who claim to be the first settlers of Dollo Ado- are
complaining about the rising cost of living and insecurity associated with
the influx of refugees. The natives fear that some of the refugees are
members of terrorist groups such as Al Shabaab. In other cases, the presence
of large numbers of refugees is raising the potential for conflicts as the
natives and refugees fight for scarce resources.

As large flows of refugees settle in the interior of these countries, they
begin to impact the cost of housing and commodities. For example, the exodus
of Somalis to Kenya has resulted in significant population changes in some
of Kenya's cities. In some parts of Nairobi such as Eastleigh, the Somali
population has increased so much that the area is now commonly referred to
as "Small Mogadishu".

The capacity of these countries to respond to the refugee and internally
displaced people crisis is severely constrained because they are also facing
difficult economic times. Rising food and fuel prices have led to soaring
inflation of 16.7 percent in Kenya, 39.2 percent in Ethiopia and 5.2 percent
in Djibouti. With the widespread drought across the region, there has been
increased demand for imported food. Simultaneously, these economies have
faced a rapid depreciation in their currencies, which further increases the
cost of food and medical supplies.

With limited instruments to deal with the economic crisis, attempts to
stabilize these economies have resulted in yet another problem of rising
interest rates. These countries are grappling with the unholy trinity of
inflation, rising interest rates and unstable exchange rates. All of these
issues are adversely hurting economic growth in Africa's horn. Unemployment,
especially among youth, is compounding the economic situation, which is only
exacerbated by the influx of refugees.

The refugee and displaced persons crisis is likely to continue as the
drought persists and the political crisis in Somalia remains unresolved.
Food insecurity in Somalia is projected to last until
<http://www.fews.net/pages/region.aspx?gb=r2> December. And although food
security in Kenya is projected to improve in the next few months, Kenyan
authorities have indicated that the country will not be able to cope with
additional refugees. Kenya's President Mwai Kibaki has proposed that refugee
camps be established in Somalia rather than Kenya as a way to control the
influx of Somali refugees.

While the capacity of the host countries to absorb all the refugees is
constrained by the ailing economic situations, a longer term and
economically viable solution to the refugee problem is of urgent necessity.
Refugees arrive in the camps with nothing and it is costly for host
countries and aid givers in the long term to continue providing food,
shelter and clothing. However, skilled and experienced refugees who have
managed to move into these countries' interior regions have been able to
engage in various economic activities. Therefore, there is a possibility
then that skills can be harnessed in these camps and aid can be channeled to
engage refugees in economic activity such as building infrastructure in the
affected cities and increase staffing in the government provided services.
This is more beneficial to the refugees and at the same time to natives of
affected cities in the longer term. A lot of refugees would like to go back
to their countries when peace is restored, but not without resources or some
gained skills that would enable them start life again. However, it is
important to note that the permanent solution to refugee and internally
displaced persons problems lies squarely on the ability of African countries
to tackle the root causes, which include corruption, greed and a lack of
true democracy.


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